Emperors used seals to proclaim their decrees to their people, officials used seals to exercise their power, merchants used seals to demonstrate their credibility, landlords used seals to enclose felds, and the common people used seals to protect their small properties. Gradually seals became the representative and evidence of personal identity, and even today we are still using seals.
Introductory Remarks-Beginning with the Character “印”Yin （Seat） Seats Are Found Everywhere Seals Stamped on Pottery Seals Stamped on Clay Seals Stamped on Paper Seals on Paintings and Calligraphic Works The Historical DeveLopment of Chinese Seats The Earliest Seals Seals of the Spring and Autumn and Warring States Periods Qin and Han Dynasty Seals， and Their Decline Separation of Official Seals and Private Seals， and the Appearance of the Art of Seal Cutting Seat Knobs and Seats as Accessories The Story of Seal Stones The Beauty of the Seat Characters and Seat Styte Seal Inscriptions Seal Character Arrangement Cutting Technique Style Characters on Seat Sides and Books of Seat Impressions Biankuan （Characters on Seal Sides） Books of Seal Impressions Seat Cutters and Seat Society Seal Cutters of the Ming Dynasty Seal Cutters of the Qing Dynasty Contemporary Seal Cutters The Xiling Seal Society Seat Cutting and Seat Stamping Seal Cutting Stamping Seals Appendix： Chronological Table of the Chinese Dynasties
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